Malaria is caused by a parasite called Plasmodium, which is transmitted via the bites of infected mosquitoes. In the human body, the parasites multiply in the liver, and then infect red blood cells.
Symptoms of malaria include fever, headache, and vomiting, and usually appear between 10 and 15 days after the mosquito bite. If not treated, malaria can quickly become life-threatening by disrupting the blood supply to vital organs. In many parts of the world, the parasites have developed resistance to a number of malaria medicines.
Typhoid fever is a bacterial infection that can spread throughout the body, affecting many organs. Without prompt treatment, it can cause serious complications and can be fatal.
It is caused by a bacterium called Salmonella typhi, which is related to the bacteria that cause salmonella food poisoning.
Typhoid fever is highly contagious. An infected person can pass the bacteria out of their body in their stools (faeces) or, less commonly, in their urine.
If someone else eats food or drinks water that has been contaminated with a small amount of infected faeces or urine, they can become infected with the bacteria and develop typhoid fever.
Diarrhoea is passing looser or more frequent stools than is normal for you.
It affects most people from time to time and is usually nothing to worry about. However, it can be distressing and unpleasant until it passes, which normally takes a few days to a week.
What causes diarrhoea?
There are many different causes of diarrhoea, but a bowel infection (gastroenteritis) is a common cause in both adults and children.
Gastroenteritis can be caused by:
a virus – such as norovirus or rotavirus.
bacteria – such as campylobacter and Escherichia coli (E. coli), which are often picked up from contaminated food.
a parasite – such as the parasite that causes giardiasis, which is spread in contaminated water.
The treatments aid in fighting bacterial infections.
Have close contact with someone who is infected or has recently been infected with typhoid fever.
Drink water polluted by sewage that contains Salmonella typhi.
Intestinal bleeding or holes.
Intestinal bleeding or holes in the intestine are the most serious complications of typhoid fever. They usually develop in the third week of illness. In this condition, the small intestine or large bowel develops a hole. Contents from the intestine leak into the stomach and can cause severe stomach pain, nausea, vomiting and bloodstream infection (sepsis). This life-threatening complication requires immediate medical care.
Other, less common complications
Other possible complications include:
Inflammation of the heart muscle (myocarditis).
Inflammation of the lining of the heart and valves (endocarditis).
Infection of major blood vessels (mycotic aneurysm).
Inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis).
Kidney or bladder infections.
Infection and inflammation of the membranes and fluid surrounding your brain and spinal cord (meningitis).
Psychiatric problems, such as delirium, hallucinations and paranoid psychosis.
With quick treatment, nearly all people in industrialized nations recover from typhoid fever. Without treatment, some people may not survive complications of the disease.
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